Posts Tagged rasuah


The general election XII in 2008 saw a landscape change in politics. The opposition won and formed state governments in Penang, Selangor, Kedah and Perak while maintaining the Kelantan State. The voice of change became louder in Parliament with many representatives from the opposition coalition. There were voices in Parliament and the streets that corruption is a menace in the country. Hence, issues of corruption became the main political agenda both in the ruling coalition and the opposition. The Anti-Corruption Agency (ACA) was perceived to be none independent in the fight against corruption. Everyone wanted a more independent and effective anti-graft entity.

The change in political scenario also contributed to the transformation of the then Anti-Corruption Agency (ACA). Thus, in 2009 the then ACA forwarded a proposed new legislation to transform ACA to an independent structure for anti-graft known as the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC). The legislation not only gave more powers to MACC in the fight against corruption but also structural change with check and balance mechanisms to ensure an independent anti-graft entity.

The proposed Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission Act 2009 was then passed in Parliament and came into force. There were three independent oversight bodies formed by virtue of provisions in the Act and another two formed administratively. The MACC took a bold move to have five independent oversight bodies to monitor, peruse and advice the different functions of the anti-graft entity. The five oversight bodies were namely the Anti-Corruption Advisory Board (ACAB), Special Committee on Corruption (SCC), Complaints Committee, the Operations Review Panel (ORP), and the Consultation and Corruption Prevention Panel (CCPP). The formation of the five independent oversight bodies showed that the MACC is truly an independent anti-graft entity. The MACC has to present its annual report to the Special Committee on Corruption which comprises of members from both the government and opposition coalition. The Committee peruses, scrutinizes and gets the MACC to explain in length every function that had been carried out in the previous year.

While the MACC had geared up in the fight against corruption as being wished for by the nation, there were some quarters that politicized issues of corruption. The MACC was blamed to be selective in its investigations when many issues of corruption were not revealed to the public and there seems no immediate action that the public wanted. The public perceived that the MACC will just nab and prosecute the person merely on complaints. Time became the accent and test for effectiveness of MACC. The public wanted swift and fast action.

When the MACC moved in to investigate corruption in illegal sand mining and export across the country, it was said to be a tool to the Federal Government to bring down certain states under the PR government, especially Selangor. When there were not many politicians especially those who fell out in the election were not arrested for perceived corruption, the issue of “big fish and small fish” became the talk of the street.

MACC was made to do lots of public relation job rather then focusing on investigations of corruption cases. The public were not patient enough. The politicians took advantage of their bigger share of voice to politicize corruption for their own political agenda. MACC was made to be their black sheep.  While MACC was moving in the right direction in changing the perception, suddenly and unfortunately incident after incident occurred within its environment. The incidents were the demised of a witness, who was then a political aide for an Executive Councilor in Selangor and later the death of an accused person, who was an assistant director of Customs. Both the incidents took place within the premises of MACC.

The first incident brought serious implications to MACC.  Public confidence eroded, politicians took advantage of the incident and made it a political agenda for their own political mileage. The issue was never allowed to rest even after the inquest and the recently concluded Royal Commission of Inquiry. The transformation process of ACA to MACC were perceived a failure

While, all this happened, the year 2010 show cased a change in leadership of MACC. Abu Kassim Mohamed took over the helm of MACC as its new Chief Commissioner. The government developed the Government Transformation Programme with the formulation of National Key Result Areas (NKRA). Corruption is one of the NKRA. The NKRA on Corruption focuses on three elements namely the grand corruption, procurement and enforcement.

The new leadership of MACC then immediately made an environmental scanning which showed that image and credibility of MACC badly ruined, public confidence towards MACC were low, the public could not feel the effectiveness of the transformation of MACC, political parties took advantage and politicized the transformation of MACC, and last but not least, the morale and enthusiasm of MACC officers hit rock bottom. MACC was left on their own to deal with perceptions and fighting corruption was derailed.

The farsighted leadership immediately formulated and introduced the MACC aspiration. The aspiration focused on specific initiatives to reverse the negative perception and reposition the public confidence on MACC and the fight against corruption. Internally, it focused to enhance the morale and confidence within the organization. The aspiration thus focused on three main elements of independency, transparency and professionalism.

Hence, MACC took a bold step to create the post of Deputy Chief Commissioner of Management and Professionalism in addition to the other two namely Deputy Chief Commissioner (Operations) and Deputy Chief Commissioner (Preventions). The establishment of a special division called Excellence and Professionalism to maintain and enhance professionalism in and within the human capital of MACC, Corporate Communication Unit to disseminate information and liaise with internal and external key communicators especially the media, Special Operations Division to focus on high profile and public interest cases, and Transformation Unit to study, evaluate and formulate comprehensive strategic plan pertaining to organization, structure, processes, human resource and work culture within MACC.

The MACC’s transformational leadership outlined specific vision to realize the aspiration through formulations of big wins focusing on high profile and public interest cases, enhance public confidence, and the shift from output to outcome base performance that could be seen, felt and which will derive intended impact in the fight against corruption. Thus, the transformation strategic planning outlined comprehensive focus points on four matters namely effective investigation management, effective prevention and community education, sustaining public confidence, and capacity and capability building.

The leadership did not immediately implement all the strategic plans that were formulated by the Transformation Unit but instead formed an Executive Committee on Transformation to peruse and advice the management on the implementation of the strategic plans. The Committee is lead by the Chief Commissioner himself with members comprising the three Deputy Chief Commissioner, members from the oversight committee and panel, and two experts in law i.e. a former appellate court judge who is also the chairperson of the Complaints Committee and a former federal court judge, who was a panel member of the Royal Commission of Inquiry on the death of Teoh Beng Hock.

The MACC leadership practices transparency and wanted to precisely sure the effectiveness on the implementation of all strategic plans on transformation. The inclusions of experts in various fields are to advice, implement and ensure the success in implementation of the strategic plans on transformation. A number of the transformations that have been outlined and even immediately implemented were the Video Interviewing Room for recording of statement from accused person, potential accused person or witnesses with potential hostility.

The Chief Commissioner hence had advised the  Directors of all state branches to be prepared for changes. They were advised to equip themselves with knowledge and understandings on financial investigations, private sector investigations and proactive investigations. All functions were to be carried out with the objectives of outcome base. All actions must have high impact and felt by the public. Investigations were not only being focused on all corruption but must also give emphasize on high profile and public interest cases. Investigations must be conducted and completed swiftly, accurately and professionally.

The Directors were also advised to make a drastic move from reactive to proactive investigations. They were now expected not only to initiate investigations based on information or reports received from complainants but to also initiate proactive investigation through intelligence based investigations.

The Directors were also expected to plan, lead, organize and control their officers to the changes. They were expected to ensure high motivation and drive within their work force to compliment and realize the initiative on transformation. Officers are expected to be knowledgeable and professional in all the functions of MACC. A highly motivated, knowledgeable and skilled human capital with good sets of attitude for transformation will be the driving factor in the proposed transformation of MACC. Thus, the transformation is a way forward to creating a new landscape in the fight against corruption.

(The article was written by Muhammad Salim Sundar, Head of Corporate Communication MACC, based on the recent presentation by the Chief Commissioner to Division and State Directors on “MACC transformation and expectations”  at MACA on 18 August 2011)

PDF Download    Send article as PDF   

, , , , , , , , , , , ,



International companies are becoming large and growing proportion of the world’s total business due to globalization, which has forced western capitalists to interact with their counterparts in lower-income and developing countries, in the course of expanding business horizons and opportunities. Malaysia realizes that companies do not operate within national boundaries but in multiple countries, each with its own set of norms and rules. In the competition to secure supplies from foreign countries and compete against products and services, companies tend to violate laws and rules especially pertaining to corruption.

Domestic bribery has long been recognized as a crime in almost all countries including Malaysia. However, bribery of foreign officials is of a relatively recent occurrence. The tendency to commit foreign bribery has risen dramatically due to globalization, which has let to a significant increase in international economic activities.

In responding to the growing tendency and in relation to article 16 of the United Nation Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), which makes explicit reference to the bribery of not only foreign public officials but also officials of public international organizations. Malaysia responded well to offences of bribery by foreign public officials by taking the necessary steps to incorporate a new specific provision for bribery of foreign public officials into the domestic legislation.

Section 22 of the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission Act 2009 represents Malaysia’s legislative contribution to the international effort to criminalize such conduct. The provision stipulates that any person who by himself, or by or in conjunction with any other person gives, promises or offers, or agrees to give or offer, to any foreign public official, or being a foreign public official, solicits, accepts or obtains, or agrees to accept or attempts to obtain, whether for the benefit of that foreign public official or of another person, any gratification as an inducement or reward for, or otherwise on account of:

  1. the foreign public official using his position to influence any act or decision of the foreign state or public international organization for which the official performs any official duties;
  2. the foreign public official performing, having done or forbone to do, or abstaining from performing or aiding in procuring, expediting, delaying, hindering or preventing the performance of, any of his official duties; or
  3. the foreign public official aiding in procuring or preventing the granting of any contract for the benefit of any person,

commits an offence, notwithstanding that the foreign public official did not have the power, right or opportunity so to do, show or forbear, or accepted the gratification without intending so to do, show or forbear, or did not infact so do, show or forbear, or that the inducement or reward was not in relation to the scope of his official duties. Shall on conviction be liable to an imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years and a fine of not less than five times the sum or value of the gratification or ten thousand ringgit, whichever is the higher.

For the purpose of the offence, foreign public official defined as includes any person who holds a legislative, executive, administrative or judicial office of a foreign country whether appointed or elected. Apart from that it also includes a person who exercises a public function for a foreign country and any person who is authorized by a public international organization to act on behalf of that organization.

In addition, the provision covers any act of aiding and abetting in the commission of the offence, conspiring to commit the offence or attempting to commit the offence. Some countries will argue that it is their culture in giving gifts which on their own way may denote respect, appreciation or gratitude, without specifying large and small gifts or the value of the gifts. Thus, in Malaysian, we have within our legislation, that evidence of custom is inadmissible as a defence to an offence of bribery of a foreign public official.

Lobbying by a foreign public official in order to persuade a local public official to act in the supplicant’s is another area that is open to abuse. Lobbying, per se, that does not require a payment and which does not persuade a political figure from violating the social trust of his constituents and his parliamentary code of ethics, is legitimate. However, when lobbying is done with a payment for the same purpose and for the political figure to breach any social trust that he has with his constituents, then it constitutes an offence domestically. The giver and receiver of bribe in such cases commit an offence and would be prosecuted in Malaysia.

Facilitation payments also known as ‘grease payments’ has been described by the OECD as low level payments designed to expedite performance of a ‘routine government action’. It is corrosive in its nature towards sustainable development of a country and the rule of law. Malaysia too has recognized facilitation payments as a form of corruption within the domestic anti-corruption legislation.

The Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission Act 2009 provides that the evidence of an accomplice and agent provocateur could be used as admissible evidence in the prosecution of offences of bribery of foreign public officials. This provision would be of invaluable, as one is only to aware that corruption is sometimes regarded as ‘silent crime’ between consenting adults. Hence, if there is any other compelling independent and corroborative evidence, then the giver and receiver of the bribe could be prosecuted, respectively. Plea bargaining is being introduced into the Criminal Procedure Code in Malaysia, which would again enable the cooperation of co-offenders in the prosecution of bribery offences.

Apart from that, there is also within the scheme of the Act, a provision that there is a duty to report all forms of attempted bribery transactions and failure to do so is an offence, which on conviction be liable to a fine of not exceeding one hundred thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years or both. If bribery is being solicited or obtained, or an attempt has been made to obtain then failure to report such act, will on conviction be liable to a fine not exceeding ten thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to both. Thus, it is the duty of either the potential giver or receiver to report bribery and failure to do so may land them to a criminal charge.

Tools of investigation for the offence of bribery of foreign public officials are enshrined in the Act. A glimpse of these powers would indicate that there are explicit provisions overriding banking secrecy laws and professional legal privilege. Further, the Act provides that officers of the Commission have the power to obtain information in the course of investigation for an offence under the Act, including bribery of a foreign public official, about property that reasonably believed to have been acquired through proceeds of bribery. The information may be secured from the suspect himself, his relatives or associates, or any other person whom the anti-graft officer has reasonable ground to believe can assist in the investigations. Failure by any party to provide the information required is a criminal offence, and may face a criminal charge. On conviction may liable to imprisonment and fine.

If it is established that the suspect against whom the information is sought is an officer of a public body in Malaysia and is in excess of wealth against his present and past emoluments and all other relevant circumstances, then the said officer of a public body, can be prosecuted for the excess wealth. The officer of the public body shall on conviction be liable to an imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years and a fine which is not less than five times the value of the excess or ten thousand ringgit, whichever is the higher.

The Act also provides well defined powers to freeze the assets of a suspect and subsequent forfeiture. Where the offence is proved against the accused person, but the property cannot be traced or is disposed, the court can order the accused to pay a penalty, the sum of which is equivalent to the amount of the gratification. The penalty is over and above the punishments provided for under the Act.

The officers of the anti-graft Commission in Malaysia are constantly required to attend capability-building programmes in order to enhance their investigative skills and to network informally with counterparts of theirs from other jurisdictions. Such networking would invariably facilitate cross-border investigations. The investigative programmes are organised domestically under the auspicious of the Malaysia Anti-Corruption Academy, or internationally.

Corruption, as we all know is a crime without boundaries. Hence, the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission has also beefed up international investigation unit to cope with this new phenomenon, bribery of foreign public officials.

Last and not least, Malaysia is committed in taking important steps to facilitate rightful recoveries of proceeds of bribery and is prepared to set aside the obstacles of differing legal regimes, political chauvinism, suspicions and cultural differences, and adopt a common stand on the eradication of this new phenomenon, the offence of bribery of foreign public officials.

(The article was adopted from presentation by Mr Anthony Kevin Morais, Senior Deputy Public Prosecutor attached to the MACC, who made the presentation at an international conference – Shaping a New World: Combating Foreign Bribery in International Business Transactions which was held at Hyatt Hotel, Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia, organized by Corruption Eradication Commission (CEC), Indonesia in collaboration with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Written by: SAC Muhammad Salim Sundar, Head of Corporate Communication, MACC.

Create PDF    Send article as PDF   

, , , , , , , , ,


Panel Cadang Konsep Jabatan Angkat Pada SPRM

Oleh : Ps Yip Ai Tsin dan PPs Maizatul

KUALA LUMPUR – Panel Perundingan dan Pencegahan Rasuah Suruhanjaya Pencegahan Rasuah Malaysia (PPPR) akan mencadangkan supaya diwujudkan konsep

”Jabatan Angkat SPRM” dalam usaha mendekati dan membantu agensi yang mempunyai masalah berkaitan prosedur.

Pengerusi PPPR, Datuk Johan Jaafar berkata, bagi melaksanakan tujuan itu PPPR bercadang untuk mengadakan beberapa sesi dialog dengan agensi atau jabatan kerajaan untuk mendapatkan maklumat secara komprehensif tentang realiti yang dihadapi pihak tersebut.

Katanya, PPPR mahu berlaku adil  pada agensi dan jabatan kerajaan supaya perspektif mereka turut di ambil kira dalam melihat isu membabitkan rasuah, penyelewengan dan salah guna kuasa ini.

” Kita rasakan bahawa Untuk menangani korupsi, kita harus pastikan semua tindakan dan  semua operasi yang dijalankan itu bukan sahaja pada peringkat pendakwaan tetapi juga pada peringkat kesedaran  perlu dipastikan berjalan pd semua peringkat.”

”Kita putuskan utk cadangkan kepada SPRM supaya mengambil mana-mana agensi yang dilihat bermasalah sebagai ‘jabatan angkat” dan ini tidak semestinya jabatan kerajaan,  mungkin bahagian tertentu atau unit tertentu dalam organisasi.”

Turut dibincangkan dalam mesyuarat bulanan PPPR kali kelima itu ialah masalah berkaitan amalan rasuah oleh kakitangan barisan hadapan (Frontline Corruption Practices) yang diutarakan oleh ahli panel, Syed Akhbar Ali.

Johan memaklumkan bahawa pemantauan kemungkinan wujudnya  amalan rasuah pada kakitangan barisan hadapan adalah perlu bagi melihat gambaran di peringkat masyarakat.

”Ia bertujuan untuk  melihat gambaran dan pandangan menyeluruh mengenai rasuah yang kita lihat berlaku diperingkat bawahan yang mebabitkan peniaga kecil, penjual dan sebagainya kerana golongan ini yang berhadapan dengan masalah salahlaku dan  salah guna kuasa pada peringkat pegawai yang babitkan agensi-agensi atau pihak berkuasa tempatan.

”Walaupun ia dilihat sbg perkara kecil ,tetapi apabila berlaku dlm jangka masa panjang, ianya menjejaskan kerajaan.Lebih penting lagi ia  melibatkan rakyat jelata.

” Jadi PPPPR beranggapan bahawa isu rasuah ini harus dilihat  sama rata walaupun babitkan peniaga kecil /kumpulan kecil mahupun peringkat tinggi iaitu pada tahap pimpinan politik,” katanya.

PPPR  dianggotai  oleh Dato’ Sri Azman Ujang, Prof Dr Engr Chin Yew Sin, Datuk Prof Dr Ishak Tambi Kechik,   Prof Emeritus Dato’ Dr. Abdul Rahman Hj. Embong, Datuk David Chua, dan Dr.Zainal Abidin Abdul Majid.

Mesyuarat yang dihadiri Ketua Pesuruhjaya SPRM, Dato’ Sri Abu Kassim Mohammed itu diadakan di Akademi Pencegahan Rasuah Malaysia (MACA)

Johan turut menyatakan bahawa konsep ini juga relevan untuk digunapakai dalam memberikan maklumat sebenar kepada parti politik dengan mengambil contoh isu dana yang disalurkan pada parti-parti politik.

Katanya maklumat sebenar harus diberikan kepada parti politik bahawa bukan sokongan kewangan kepada parti yang ditentang tetapi kaedah atau cara yang perlu dipantau supaya transparents dan tidak disalahgunakan.

”Ini adalah sesuatu yang merugikan parti politik sendiri kalau peruntukan atau sumbangan kepada parti politik itu yang bernilai tidak sampai.

“ Untuk tujuan ini parti tidak perlu khuatir kalau prosedurnya betul dan tindakan yang kita akan cadangkan ini adalah supaya parti politik itu akan dapat manfaat dan orang yang mengamalkan slhguna kuasa dan kedudukan serta menyeleweng sumbangan itu akan terima kesan, bukan parti itu ,” katanya ketika ditemui selepas mempengerusikan mesyuarat.

PDF    Send article as PDF   

, , , , , , , , ,

No Comments

Graft a bane of the country, concedes Najib

Apr 23, 11 4:05pm
10 friends can read this story for free
Corruption and leakages are not only affecting the government’s revenue but also the nation’s economic performance, said Prime Minister Najib Razak.

He said the government had to take drastic measures to curb these scourges to safeguard the nation’s economy and that the recent arrests of people suspected to be involved in corruption were examples of the action taken.

Najib said this when opening the annual general meeting of the Pahang Malay Contractors Association in Pekan today.

Also present were Pahang Menteri Besar Adnan Yaakob and International Trade and Industry Minister Mustapa Mohamed.

Recently, the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission arrested 60 Customs officers nationwide who were suspected to be involved in corruption and money laundering.

Contracts given out based on needs

Najib also told the contractors present that the awarding of government contracts was based on needs and affordability.

“This is closely linked with economic growth and our ability to generate additional revenue. If there are leakages, obviously the government’s income will be affected.

“Examples are people avoiding paying income tax and under declaring when importing or exporting goods to pay less duties. These affect the government’s income,” he said, adding that ctizens should also play their role towards ensuring economic growth so that the economic pie could be enjoyed by all.

Najib added that he would be the happiest man if national revenue could be increased by RM50 billion, RM60 billion or even RM70 billion as this would mean more development projects for the people and thus good news for contractors.

– Bernama
Malaysiakini subscribers can resume posting comments. Welcome back to all Malaysiakini commentators.

Terms of Use: Please note that foul language will not be tolerated. Comments that include profanity, personal attacks, and antisocial behaviour such as “spamming” and “trolling” will be removed. Violators run the risk of being blocked permanently. You are fully responsible for the content you post. Please be responsible and stay on topic.

Remember that all comments are linked back to your Malaysiakini subscription. In order to avoid someone else making comments using your account, please avoid sharing your password with others. You have the option to change your display name and you may also add an icon in order to highlight your comment. For longer comments, please send them to as a Letter to the Editor.

Do please note that depending on area bandwidth usage, there may be a delay of 15 minutes of more before comments posted appear on our site.

Comments 1 to 5 of 5
Compass I always laugh when UMNO leaders say they are against corruption. Can’t they talk about something more believable ?
10 minutes ago · Report
Ramachandran Muniandy Why only DAP bring about corruption in Parliament but not PKR leaders like Anwar and Azmin? Becos they are as corrupted as BN leaders or worst!
2 hours ago · Report
Gen2 Start with the Mother of all Corruptions – the submarine commissions.
2 hours ago · Report
Disgusted No point talking and agreeing about Corruption. Rakyat want action starting with UMNO, BN and civil service. Do you dare? Catch Mamak gang as well.
3 hours ago · Report
righteous As i’ve always maintained..They have all the answers to all the problems..loosing elections,loosing revenue,loosing engines,loosing competiveness and what have you.The only problem is WHO GAINS OR LOOSE THE MOSTif at all Najib gets his BALLS back from Kak Rose to act and do the needful.No one in UMNO will be left standing,neither is the race-dominated civil service.Hence, “I help you,you help me””I shut one eye,you close one eye”Boss semua a OKAY.1 Melayu 1 Bumi kita,jangan orang lain masuk kaka caucau.Wasalaam.”
3 hours ago · Report
PDF Creator    Send article as PDF   

, , , ,

No Comments


Kejadian kematian kedua yang dilaporkan di pejabat SPRM merupakan tragedi yang amat mengejutkan semua pihak, termasuk SPRM sendiri. Semasa Suruhanjaya Siasatan terhadap kematian Teoh Beng Hock (TBH) hangat dibicarakan, berlaku lagi satu kes terbaru di mana seorang pegawai kastam Ahmad Sabrani Mohamed (ASM) ditemui meninggal dunia di pejabat SPRM Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur.

Timbul reaksi pelbagai pihak berhubung kejadian ini. Ada yang menghentam SPRM dan tidak kurang juga yang memberi sokongan moral kepada SPRM untuk meneruskan usaha-usaha memerangi rasuah. Rata-rata persoalan yang timbul ialah bagaimana kejadian ini boleh berlaku dan tidakkah SPRM belajar dari apa yang berlaku dalam kejadian sebelumnya?

Sebenarnya, apa yang berlaku dalam kes TBH banyak memberikan pengajaran dan panduan kepada Warga SPRM secara keseluruhannya. Pelbagai peraturan diperkemas dan seluruh warga diberikan ingatan berulang kali oleh pengurusan SPRM. Hakikatnya, peraturan atau perintah tetap berhubung pengendalian pelawat, saksi, orang kena tuduh (OKT) di premis-premis SPRM seluruh negara telah diwujudkan. Malahan, penggunaan teknologi dalam proses menemu bual saksi iaitu dikenali sebagai “Video Interview Room” juga dibangunkan. Teknologi ini juga diguna pakai di ICAC Hong Kong di mana proses menemu bual saksi dirakam sepenuhnya. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelakkan tohmahan-tohmahan seperti penderaan atau penggunaan kekerasan terhadap saksi.

Walau apa pun peraturan, teknologi dan langkah-langkah pencegahan diperkenal dan diperkemas, namun jika ia hendak berlaku ia tetap akan berlaku jua. Kejadian yang berlaku amat disesalkan. Siasatan pihak Polis dan siasatan dalaman SPRM diharapkan dapat menemui jawapan kepada punca kematian dan kelemahan yang wujud. Warga SPRM amat bersimpati dengan keluarga Allahyarham Ahmad Sabrani b. Mohamed. Terus terang kami katakan, Warga SPRM juga berhak mengetahui kebenaran dan tidak akan sesekali kami melakukan sesuatu perkara di luar batas undang-undang. Apatah lagi terhadap rakan penjawat awam.

Sesuatu yang diduga berlaku di mana wujud segelintir pihak yang cuba mengambil kesempatan bagi memanipulasi kejadian ini sebagai modal politik mereka. Ada yang cuba memujuk keluarga Allahyarham untuk bersama-sama mereka memperdagangkan isu ini untuk kepentingan politik. Ahli-ahli politik sebegini adalah oportunis yang suka mengambil kesempatan untuk menjatuhkan maruah serta martabat Kerajaan dan agensi-agensi kerajaan yang penting. Mereka ini bukan jujur untuk membantu tetapi berusaha untuk memecahbelahkan rakyat dengan mempolitikkan isu berkenaan serta cubaan untuk mengalih pandangan masyarakat terhadap kejadian yang sedang menghantui ketua pembangkang.

Selain itu, wujud juga pakatan jahat untuk sengaja menggembar-gemburkan isu kematian ASM sebagai desakan kepada SPRM untuk melengah-lengahkan dan seterusnya menghentikan operasi besar-besaran kes 3B. Apa yang diketahui oleh SPRM berhubung Ops 3B ini amatlah memeranjatkan. Banyak pihak selama ini yang telah mengaut keuntungan berlipat kali ganda hasil daripada penyelewengan taksiran cukai. Cukai-cukai yang sepatutnya bernilai jutaan ringgit dibayar hanya dengan kadar minimum iaitu antara 5 ke 10 peratus nilai cukai sebenar. Syarikat-syarikat pengimport dan pengeksport, agen-agen forwarding dan segelintir pegawai yang dipertanggungjawabkan untuk menentukan kutipan hasil dikutip berpakat demi kepentingan serta keuntungan peribadi. Kesannya, kerugian yang dialami negara hasil daripada kutipan cukai-cukai ini dianggarkan melebihi RM 3 bilion. Ini tidak termasuk anggaran kerugian yang dialami Kerajaan iaitu sebanyak RM10 bilion hasil daripada pelbagai aktiviti jenayah termasuk penyeludupan, pengubahan wang haram, dadah, pengaliran wang hasil kegiatan jenayah ke luar negara, rasuah dan sebagainya.

Bayangkan lah, sekiranya Kerajaan menerusi agensi-agensinya mampu menyelamatkan anggaran RM 10 Bilion berkenaan. Apa yang boleh dimanfaatkan? Sudah tentu, penjawat awam boleh dibayar bonus sebulan gaji, lebih banyak sekolah, hospital, klinik-klinik, rumah-rumah anak yatim dan OKU yang boleh dibina hasil dari tambahan RM10 Bilion tersebut. Bukan begitu?

Penjawat-penjawat awam khususnya yang bertanggungjawab ke atas kutipan hasil dan keselamatan negara di pintu-pintu masuk sempadan wajarlah merenungi semula peranan dan tanggungjawab mereka. Jawatan yang disandang adalah amanah. Jangan gadaikan maruah diri, keluarga, bangsa dan negara hanya untuk kepentingan serta keuntungan jangka pendek.

Seharusnya tindakan SPRM yang mengepalai task-force yang terdiri daripada pelbagai agensi termasuk Lembaga Hasil Dalam Negeri dan Bank Negara Malaysia ini diberikan sokongan untuk meneruskan siasatan bagi menyelongkar sindiket yang telah bertapak lama ini.

Inilah antara contoh jenayah terancang yang dilaksanakan secara bersindiket, sistematik dan mempunyai rangkaian yang meluas. Bagi berhadapan dengan penjenayah atau lebih sesuai pengkhianat negara ini, keseluruhan masyarakat harus bersatu menyokong tindakan pihak berkuasa. Menyokong dalam erti kata menyalurkan lebih banyak maklumat, berani mendedahkan kepincangan yang berlaku dan bersuara mempertahankan tindakan pihak berkuasa sekiranya ada pihak-pihak yang berkepentingan termasuk parti-parti politik yang suka menangguk di air yang keruh.

SPRM tidak akan rugi sekiranya siasatan ini dihentikan. Yang rugi adalah rakyat. Ini kerana aktiviti yang menguntungkan ini akan terus menerus berlaku. Kesannya, cukai yang sepatutnya dikutip untuk kepentingan dan pembangunan rakyat akan lesap dan diselewengkan.

Seperkara yang disesalkan, bila Ops 3 B ini bermula, ada diperjelaskan bahawa ia adalah operasi melibatkan pelbagai agensi. Namun apabila kejadian ini berlaku, hanya SPRM sahaja dilihat berdiri dengan dihentam dari segenap penjuru. Di mana agensi-agensi yang lain? Bagaimana jika kutipan RM3 Billion dan Ops ini berjaya, saya yakin lain-lain agensi akan terlebih dahulu ke hadapan menonjolkan diri menyatakan kejayaan adalah hasil usaha mereka. Hakikatnya, tiada istilah kawan dalam memerangi rasuah. Itulah realitinya.

Pokok pangkalnya, SPRM bukan bekerja untuk mencari nama dan publisiti murahan. Tindakan SPRM adalah berasaskan undang-undang dan peraturan yang ditetapkan. Rasuah adalah jenayah. Tiada kaitan dengan kepartian, bangsa atau agama. Musuh kami adalah perasuah, perantara dan orang yang melindungi perasuah.

Kepada semua pihak yang menyatakan sokongan kepada SPRM dalam kes ini, kami ucapkan terima kasih. Semoga kami diberikan kekuatan untuk menjalankan amanah dan tanggungjawab memerangi kemungkiran dan menegakkan kebenaran.

InsyaAllah, Ops ini akan tetap diteruskan walaupun terpaksa mengharungi pelbagai halangan dan rintangan. Apa yang penting adalah kesejahteraan dan kemakmuran masyarakat.

Bekas Warga SPRM


Free PDF    Send article as PDF   

, , , , , , , , ,



Rasuah sentiasa menjadi isu panas yang menjadi bahan percakapan dan penulisan. Hampir setiap hari ada sahaja isu rasuah dilaporkan dalam pelbagai media termasuk arus perdana, media alternatif mahupun media sosial. Seharusnya isu rasuah ini dipaparkan dan digembar-gemburkan dengan matlamat untuk mewujudkan kesedaran dan mendidik masyarakat mengenai bahaya jenayah ini. Akan tetapi, apa yang berlaku ialah rasuah telah dijadikan senjata bagi menghentam dan menjatuhkan kredibiliti serta maruah organisasi atau individu yang ditohmah.

Orang yang ditohmah atau dituduh rasuah dijatuhkan hukuman sebelum sesuatu siasatan dimulakan. Paparan tohmahan atau maklumat yang dibuat dalam media-media sosial seperti blog khususnya menggambarkan seolah-olah isu yang dipaparkan itu benar-benar berlaku. Tujuannya ialah agar masyarakat terus menghukum dan membenci individu terbabit. Pelbagai cerita dan bukti sengaja direka sehinggakan ada yang bijak menggunakan dokumen-dokumen berkelas rahsia bagi mengesahkan tohmahan yang dibuat.

Kecanggihan teknologi sering disalahgunakan oleh pihak-pihak berkepentingan bagi tujuan-tujuan tersirat dan tersurat. Ini kerana kepantasan penyebaran maklumat dalam dunia tanpa sempadan dan sekatan membuatkan cerita-cerita panas ini mudah tersebar di seluruh pelosok dunia. Bagi yang membacanya, akan mudah percaya kerana inilah sumber maklumat yang utama, menjadi rujukan generasi muda dalam dan luar negara. Yang menjadi lebih buruk kesannya, bilamana pihak-pihak luar yang sentiasa mencari salah dan kelemahan Malaysia, menjadikannya modal untuk menidakkan semua dasar dan program yang telah diperkenalkan Kerajaan.

Sampai bilakah perbuatan ini akan berlaku? Tidak adakah sebarang sekatan atau penguatkuasaan yang boleh diambil ke atas pengendali-pengendali blog yang tidak bertanggungjawab ini. Mungkin ada yang berkata inilah kebebasan bersuara dan hak asasi yang wajar dipelihara dan dipertahankan. Ya ke? Bagaimana pula hak asasi dan kebenaran orang yang dituduh rasuah? Kita seronok menuduh orang itu rasuah, orang ini seleweng, bagaimana pula jika orang lain menuduh kita?

Isu rasuah ini menjadi semakin panas bilamana ia dijadikan modal atau bahan politik. Tidak mengira tempat termasuk dalam dewan rakyat, rasuah dijadikan isu bagi menghentam antara satu sama yang lain. Yang peliknya, dalam dewan rakyat berdegar-degar bunyi dentuman tohmahan rasuah sehinggakan ada yang berani mengatakan mempunyai berkotak-kotak bukti, namun bila di luar dewan dilihat aktor-aktor ini saling peluk berpelukan dan ketawa dengan babak lakonan tadi.

Kesannya bila media melaporkan isu rasuah itu tadi, rakyat pula yang berpecah belah dan berbalah antara penyokong setiap parti. Yang menjadi mangsa utama ialah agensi penguatkuasaan yang terpinga-pinga dibelasah kira, kanan, atas dan bawah kerana dikatakan gagal mengambil tindakan. Bila ditanya mana kotak-kotak bukti tu YB, jawapan yang diberi cari sendiri dan no komen? Ahli Parlimen dikatakan mempunyai imuniti ke atas apa yang dibahaskan dalam dewan yang mulia. Pihak berkuasa terbatas kuasanya untuk mengarahkan ahli-ahli parlimen untuk membuat aduan dan menyerahkan apa-apa dokumen berkaitan. Inilah dunia politik masa kini.

Sebenarnya telah banyak kali sebenarnya agensi penguat kuasa seperti SPRM cuba digunakan sebagai alat politik, termasuk kanan mahupun kiri. Yang kanan menuduh SPRM menyebelahi yang kiri jika lambat bertindak ke atas maklumat yang disalurkan. Manakala yang kiri pula akan menuduh SPRM berat sebelah, alat politik untuk menjatuhkan mereka.

Lihatlah beberapa kes yang telah disiasat oleh SPRM sebelum ini. Di salah sebuah negeri pantai timur, SPRM dituduh pro-kiri kerana gagal menghadapkan ketua negeri ke mahkamah atas tuduhan rasuah. Manakala di negeri yang kecoh dengan isu pasir pula, dikatakan tindakan SPRM bermotifkan politik bertujuan untuk menjatuhkan Kerajaan negeri terbabit. Yang menghairankan, tindakan SPRM ke atas tiga buah negeri lain berhubung isu yang sama iaitu pasir, tidak pula dijadikan bahan politik.

Terkini, SPRM sekali lagi dibidas oleh penyokong kuat sebelah kanan kerana dikatakan bersekongkol dengan sebelah kiri dalam siasatan terhadap kekayaan ahli-ahli sebelah kiri. Gambar-gambar lawatan parti sebelah kiri ke pejabat SPRM dijajakan sebagai bukti kecondongan SPRM.

Perlu dijelaskan di sini bahawa tiada istilah kiri atau kanan, biru atau hijau dalam kamus SPRM. Semua tindakan yang dijalankan oleh SPRM adalah berteraskan undang-undang. Siasatan merupakan proses mencari kebenaran, bukan mencari salah. Siasatan SPRM tidak berasaskan sentimen atau kepartian. Rasuah adalah jenayah yang ditetapkan undang-undang. Justeru itu, SPRM akan bertindak ke atas perasuah, perantara dan orang-orang yang melindungi serta bersekongkol dengan rasuah.

Tiada istilah kawan sebenarnya dalam perjuangan menentang rasuah. Kawan sebenar SPRM adalah individu atau organisasi yang bersama-sama SPRM menentang jenayah ini. Jangan jadikan SPRM alat untuk menjatuhkan orang lain. Baik parti kanan mahupun parti kiri. SPRM tidak akan sesekali tunduk kepada telunjuk individu yang cuba mengambil kesempatan dengan berbuat baik dengan SPRM.  Ini adalah ingatan ikhlas daripada Warga SPRM.

PDF Printer    Send article as PDF   

, , , ,

No Comments

Wen Pledges to Curb Graft, Income Inequality as Police Head Off Protests

By Bloomberg News – Feb 28, 2011 4:53 AM GMT+0800
Paramilitary Police On Wangfujing Pedestrian Street

Paramilitary police march past a KFC restaurant on the Wangfujing pedestrian street in Beijing on Sunday. Photographer: Nelson Ching/Bloomberg

Wen Jiabao, China's prime minister

Wen Jiabao, China’s prime minister. Photographer: Pankaj Nangia/Bloomberg

Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao pledged to punish abuse of power by officials and narrow the growing wealth gap as police blanketed Beijing and Shanghai to head off planned protests inspired by revolts in the Middle East.

The root of corruption lies in a government that has too much unrestrained power, Wen said in a two-hour online interview with citizens yesterday. He promised to curtail food costs and tackle surging property prices. Wen also cut economic growth targets and said the government would focus on ensuring the benefits of expansion were more evenly distributed.

Wen’s comments came as hundreds of police deployed in Beijing and Shanghai at the site of demonstrations called to protest corruption and misrule. At least seven people were bundled into police vans near Shanghai’s People’s Square, while in Beijing several foreign journalists were forcibly removed from the Wangfujing shopping district.

China’s leaders have emphasized the country’s economic successes in their response to demonstrations both in China and in the Middle East. While the country’s economy has expanded more than 90-fold in the past three decades, Wen said rising inequality is threatening social stability.

“The party leadership needs to reassure the people that in the absence of political reform they can nonetheless meet the people’s rising expectations,” said Chinese University of Hong Kong’s adjunct professor of history Willy Wo-lap Lam. “The expectation for what the government should do for the people has increased” as a result of protests sweeping Arab nations.

Quality Growth

The government has set an annual economic growth target of 7 percent for the five-year period through 2015, Wen said. China’s target was 7.5 percent for the period from 2006 through last year, with actual growth exceeding that each year.

“The new five-year plan will be more about quality of growth,” said Kevin Lai, a Hong Kong-based economist at Daiwa Capital Markets. “The government is going to pay more attention to sustainable growth, environment, better distribution of income, rather than pure GDP pursuit.”

An August report by Zurich-based Credit Suisse AG put income inequality levels in China at levels not seen outside of sub-Saharan Africa. High food prices, unemployment and anger over corruption helped spark the protests that toppled Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak and have fueled rebellion against Libya’s Muammar Qaddafi.

Oil prices in New York have surged on concern the unrest will continue to spread, disrupting supplies. Crude for April delivery rose as much as 5.4 percent to $103.41 a barrel on Feb. 24, the highest intraday price since September 2008. Libya is the largest holder of oil reserves in Africa.

Las Vegas

“China is a rich country, yet food prices are sky high,” said a 23-year-old university student in Shanghai who declined to be identified because he feared arrest. “We can’t afford to buy property, yet all the corrupt officials gamble our money away in Las Vegas.”

An open letter on the U.S.-based website called for people to gather in at least 27 sites around the country yesterday from Tibet to Manchuria for “jasmine” rallies, named after the uprising last month in Tunisia. “Come out and take a stroll at two o’clock on Sundays to look around,” the letter said.

The letter called for the ruling Communist Party to fight corruption, create an independent judiciary and reduce income inequality or else “exit the stage of history.” The letter said economic booms in Taiwan and South Korea were accomplished with much more equitable income levels.

Shanghai, Beijing

In Shanghai, at least 23 police vehicles were stationed around Shanghai’s Peace Cinema in the shopping area of People’s Square. Police in Beijing, which included paramilitary units and patrols with Rottweiler and German Shepherd dogs, forcibly removed several foreign journalists from Wangfujing Street at about 2:45 p.m. Police were stationed at every entrance to Wangfujing today.

The street, most of which is closed to vehicle traffic and is one of Beijing’s busiest shopping districts, did not appear more crowded than on a usual Sunday. No demonstrators were seen.

“You see how the police try to control the crowd? They spend so many resources on this, yet why does the government do so little to improve people’s livelihoods?” said a 72-year-old retired car mechanic in Shanghai, who didn’t want to be named because he feared being detained.

The China rallies were first called for Feb. 20. That day, scores of Chinese police gathered at the protest sites, which included a Beijing McDonald’s Corp. restaurant, to quell demonstrations. Hundreds of people were present at the rally, though only a handful actively participated, the Associated Press reported at the time.

Controlling Unrest

On the corner of Jinyu Hutong and Wangfujing Streets, police officers yesterday asked for passports of people who appeared foreign. Journalists were asked to show their press cards and their information was taken down in a notebook and they were reminded about the rules on interviews.

Zhao Qizheng, who heads the foreign affairs committee of the Chinese People’s Consultative Conference, said the idea that there would be a Jasmine Revolution in China was “absurd,” Xinhua reported on Feb. 24.

The government’s reaction reflects its decades-long effort to keep unrest in check through a combination of economic growth, social reforms and political repression, said Nicholas Bequelin, a China researcher for Human Rights Watch in Hong Kong.

“One of the key aspects of the Chinese system is that it does not try to suppress social demands as much as to respond to them before they turn into political ones,” Bequelin said. “Everyday politics is about how to handle social demands — which ones to accept, which ones to channel, which ones to suppress, which ones can be ignored.”

To contact the Bloomberg staff on this story: Bruce Grant in Hong Kong at

PDF Download    Send article as PDF   

, , , , ,

No Comments

Neither CSI or ICAC

by : SylvesterLKC

I don’t know where and how to make a start for this topic today, but let’s make it the simple way – why still don’t understand how the commission works? Why keep asking about the Big Fishes?

In fact, there are a lot of cases, where certain people refers that as Big Fishes are still undergoing investigation, but simply because, it is STILL under investigation, details cannot be publicize. No suspect, no amount of bribery, not even a single word to the media. The cause and effect relation is heavy enough to bring down the moon (well, being exaggerated, but somehow true).

Now imagine, news leaked to the media, this time is about someone in the top management in government sector taking bribes – just assume that. Everyone now is discussing as the news, or rumors are all around, splash everywhere, on the TV, on the newspaper, on the radio, do you think, that someone will sit and wait for the MACC officers to come around and give the speech “You are now under arrest. You may remain silent but any spoken word can be a court statement”. Sound dramatic for you? Either way.

Does that make sense now? It’s just like when you’re fishing by the lake side but in the mean time you’re dancing around “Yay! I’m fishing!” Referring to the scenario above, that someone would have long gone away with the money, or bribe trophies or even destroy all the relevant evidences. This so called Big Fish might have taken away millions and millions of money! Now ATTENTION TAX PAYERS, that is YOUR MONEY! And because of the leak of news, MACC failed to arrest this people, yet, perceive as the MACC failed. Nobody will defend the commission. That someone is away relaxing and enjoying life with the money. Is that fair?

We don’t blame mass media, as that is the only place where the public are able to get the first-hand information. As for this moment, things had moved far beyond what people are seeing now. Some people said this, “Malaysians tend to forget”. That’s true. Now the topic has gone to the RCI, some moments later it will be another new topic. There will be endless gossips towards the commission, so why don’t people say something good about the commission? Comparing the percentage of people who watched the CSI or that certain kind of serial drama, how many of them would say that’s a bad show. How many percentages of those would that’s a good commission?

You see the facts here. I would say, I’d rather be blaming myself than blaming the commission. A good community must have a good basis, and that basis starts from ourselves, make yourself good, only then you can change the society.

Create PDF    Send article as PDF   

, , , , , , ,


Getting Smarter in Corruption

by : SylvesterLKC

Few days ago I went to somewhere in Ampang for my medical check-up. After the check-up of course I went back. Just before the junction the traffic was quite heavy, and that was unusual. Seems like an operation by the authority. They stop some of the cars and some move on, unluckily I was being stopped. I wind down; asking the officer what is the matter.

“You’re not wearing your seat belt.”

”I did.”
”But my officers said that they saw you not wearing.”
”But I did”, I replied.
”So?” I added.

He silent for a while then letting me go.

They really wanted it so much? But why let me go? Either they were scared, or they don’t want it. Which one you think?

The point is, they want bribery, and they want money. But, most of the time they only target at those who offended the regulations. They are targeting at their mind, that if the offenders pay, they will escape from legal action. When it comes to certain situation, these who take bribery will stop their action of taking; scare being caught. They already know when and where to take.

Smart enough?

There are certain times where authority goes on operation again. Obviously they want to take, but they will not ask for it, they waited for the offenders to give, or offer. I heard this from someone, this offender was caught speeding, and then he slipped a note of 50 to the window pane while the officer checked his license and ID. After returning them, the note is gone and the officer let him go with an advice, don’t repeat it again.

The point is, there is already a mutual understanding between the giver and the taker. A simple collaboration without speaking. This was thought to have no proving evidence, but from the related authority, they had found ways to prove.

Smart enough?

This is the old way, but always the choice of takers. They are the people who stand high on the top, or almost; both governmental and private agencies. These people will give order to the subordinate to do the action, and this subordinate will order someone else to do the job, so and so. The chain could involve more than 10. So if anything happen, that taker will give some money to the middle one, as a form of compensation so he would give himself out. The chain breaks, the taker’s safe.

The point is, people wanted to take, but scare being caught at the same moment, so he made a chain. But indeed, chain doesn’t really help. If the authority or the officials have the willpower to investigate, fully enough to eradicate corruption, I am sure that no matter how high you stand, you will be taken down, too.

Smart enough?

Think again before you give. Think again before you take.

PDF    Send article as PDF   

, , , , , , ,

No Comments

Rasuah membebankan Malaysia dengan kos yang signifikan

Dipetik daripada : Pelan Haja Tuju GTP , Bab 7

Rasuah membebankan Malaysia dengan kos yang signifikan. Amalan rasuah adalah bercanggah dengan nilai-nilai moral, etika dan agama majoriti rakyat Malaysia. Ia menyebabkan kerumitan prosedur dan kewangan dalam kehidupan seharian rakyat selain menyumbang kepada ketidakseimbangan sosioekonomi dan menghakis sistem nilai negara Malaysia.

Menentang rasuah melibatkan pengurusan polariti antara golongan yang tidak berkuasa dan golongan yang mempunyai kuasa dan budi bicara dalam membuat keputusan.

Selain masalah sosial, rasuah juga merompak kekayaan dan sumber negara kita. PEMUDAH menganggarkan bahawa rasuah boleh menyebabkan kos sebanyak RM10 bilion setahun, atau 1-2% daripada KDNK, apabila keputusan perniagaan (contohnya pemberian kontrak, perolehan sumber manusia) dilakukan dengan tujuan yang salah.

Malah, penghakisan keyakinan terhadap institusi negara oleh orang ramai dan komuniti perniagaan telah sedikit sebanyak menyumbang kepadakejatuhan ketara kedudukan daya saing negara (GCI), daripada 21 negara yang paling berdaya saing di dunia tiga tahun yang lalu kepada kedudukan yang terkini, 24.

Atas sebab-sebab ini, membanteras rasuah sentiasa menjadi salah satu keutamaan kami. Akhir-akhir ini, kami telah mengambil langkah yang kami yakin adalah signifikan, termasuk mewujudkan Institut Integriti Malaysia pada tahun 2004 untuk mempermudah pelaksanaan Pelan Integriti Nasional dan menaik taraf Badan Pencegah Rasuah kepada Suruhanjaya Pencegahan Rasuah Malaysia (SPRM) pada tahun 2009.

Kami juga menubuhkan sebuah pasukan petugas khas peringkat atasan yang diketuai oleh Ketua Setiausaha Negara (KSN) Tan Sri Mohd Sidek Hassan untuk mengkaji laporan Ketua Audit Negara 2008 dan mengambil tindakan terhadap mereka yang bertanggungjawab terhadap penyelewengan kewangan yang didedahkan oleh laporan itu.

Meskipun dengan usaha-usaha kerajaan itu, prestasi Malaysia telah jatuh merudum – kedudukan negara dalam Indeks Persepsi Rasuah, Transparency International (TICPI) yang berada pada kedudukan ke-23 pada tahun 1995 telah jatuh ke tangga ke-56 pada tahun 2009.

Tinjauan menunjukkan bahawa rakyat amat tidak berpuas hati dengan prestasi kerajaan dalam membanteras rasuah. Contohnya, 67% daripadawarga Malaysia yang ditinjau menerusi Kajian Global Corruption Barometer 2009 percaya bahawa tindakan kerajaan dalam usaha menentang rasuah adalah tidak berkesan.

Justeru, memandangkan isu yang mendesak ini dan juga apa yang telah dipelajari daripada usaha-usaha yang lepas, kami akan melaksanakan usaha melalui cara yang berbeza dalam usaha baru kami membanteras rasuah:

  • Memiliki aspirasi yang boleh diukur, yang berdasarkan hasil dan ditanda aras mengikut standard antarabangsa
  • Menumpukan pada usaha penambahbaikan terhadap tiga bidang yang paling mudah terdedah kepada rasuah – badan pengawalseliaan dan penguatkuasaan, perolehan kerajaan dan rasuah besar (rasuah politik)
  • Menggunakan ukuran dan sasaran KPI yang telus untuk mendefinisikan kejayaan
PDF Creator    Send article as PDF   

, , , , ,