Posts Tagged macc
By : Reuters
WASHINGTON: Crime, corruption and tax evasion have cost the developing world nearly $6 trillion over the past decade, and illicit funds keep growing, led by China, a financial watchdog group said in a new report.
China accounted for almost half of the $858.8 billion in dirty money that flowed into tax havens and Western banks in 2010, more than eight times the amounts for runner-ups Malaysia and Mexico. Total illicit outflows increased by 11 percent from the prior year, Global Financial Integrity, a Washington-based group that campaigns for financial accountability, said in its latest report released on Monday.
“Astronomical sums of dirty money continue to flow out of the developing world and into offshore tax havens and developed country banks,” said Raymond Baker, director of GFI.
“Developing countries are hemorrhaging more and more money at a time when rich and poor nations alike are struggling to spur economic growth. This report should be a wake-up call to world leaders that more must be done to address these harmful outflows,” he said.
All the countries in the top 10, which this year saw India, Nigeria, the Philippines and Nigeria join the ranks, face significant problems with corruption, and in most there are vast gaps between rich and poor citizens as well as internal security problems.
Leaders of the Group of 20 major economies increasingly are focusing on ways to crack down on money laundering, bank secrecy and tax loopholes to prevent funds stolen from public coffers or earned through criminal activity from depleting the budgets of developing countries. The sums are so huge that for every dollar in foreign direct aid, $10 leaves developing countries.
China lost $420.4 billion in 2010 and over the decade lost a total of $2.74 trillion. And its losses are steadily rising. In an October report, GFI said another $602 billion in illicit flows left China in 2011 for a total of $3.79 trillion between 2000-11.
However, the numbers in the latest report are not directly comparable with earlier data because GFI has updated its methodology, making the estimates somewhat more conservative. It measures illicit flows by calculating the difference between fund inflows from loans and net foreign direct investment, and the outflows from a country to pay for trade, cash transfers and other earnings.
Aware of the destabilizing impact of corrupt money, Chinese leaders are embarking on a crackdown. Outgoing President Hu Jintao recently warned corruption threatens to destroy the communist party and the state. In Russia, President Vladimir Putin last week also put the issue high on his agenda as citizen protests over corruption mount.
“Our report continues to demonstrate that the Chinese economy is a ticking time bomb,” said Dev Kar, GFI’s lead economist, who compiled the report. “The social, political and economic order in that country is not sustainable in the long run given such massive illicit outflows.”
Mexico lost $51.17 billion in illicit flows in 2010 for a total of $476 billion over the last decade, which does not even count the billions of dollars in bulk cash that probably left under organized crime and drug dealing. Malaysia, an export-dominated economy with a wealthy elite, lost $64.38 billion in 2010 and $285 billion cumulatively between 2001 and 2010, the report said.
Illicit financial flows have grown by 13.3 percent a year since 2001, robbing countries of wealth and benefiting a handful of corrupt leaders. Kar said the worsening picture over the past decade coincides with the globalization of finance and loosening of capital controls, changes that make it easier to transfer funds to Western banks and to tax havens.
“Until governance improves and measures to shrink the underground economy take hold, we will not see a sustained decline in illicit flows,” Kar said.
GFI called on world leaders to accelerate efforts to curtail the flow of dirty money by clamping down on secret bank accounts and ownership of shell companies; reforming customs and trade protocols so that export/import payments cannot be used to hide illegal fund transfers; requiring multinational companies to report their profits by country to prevent tax avoidance; and strongly enforcing anti money-laundering laws. reuters
SEREMBAN – Perbadanan Kemajuan Negeri, Negeri Sembilan ( PKNNS) hari ini menandatangi Ikrar Integriti Korporat bersama Suruhanjaya Pencegahan Rasuah Malaysia bagi membuktikan agensi itu komited dalam menyokong usaha kerajaan membasmi rasuah.
Menteri Besarnya, Dato’ Seri Utama Mohamad Hassan berkata usaha menandatangani ikrar itu dianggap sebagai satu langkah yang tepat memandangkan PKNNS adalah sebuah agensi yang menjalankan perniagaan.
Katanya ikrar integriti tersebut perlu ada bagi mengelak kakitangan agensi dan anak syarikat terjebak dengan rasuah.
“PKNNS adalah yang pertama di Negeri Sembilan mengambil inisiatif ini dalam usaha memperkukuhkan agensi dan anak-anak syarikat untuk memastikan usaha membenteras rasuah dikalangan agensi kerajaan disini dapat dilaksanakan.
“Ini adalah satu perkara yang boleh disebarluas dan patut diikuti oleh agensi kerajaan lain yang menjalankan perniagaan dan dijadikan sebagai satu budaya dalam urusan perniagaan yg dijalankan,” katanya.
Pada majlis tersebut Mohamad turut menjadi saksi bagi Ikrar Integriti Korporat yang ditandatangi antara Ketua Pegawai Eksekutif PKNNS, Dato’ Mohd Yusof Yunus dengan Timbalan Ketua Pesuruhjaya (Pencegahan) SPRM Dato’ Sutinah Sutan di Royale Bintang, Seremban.
Mohamad pada masa sama turut menyatakan bahawa pihaknya akan mendapatkan khidmat nasihat SPRM dari masa ke semasa.
“Kita akan buat langkah susulan dari segi khidmat nasihat kawalan dalaman daripada SPRM dan jika perlu kita akan ambil kakitangan untuk pastikan kawalan dalaman yang kukuh dan lengkap,” katanya ketika sidang media disini semalam.
The Sixth Annual Conference and General Meeting of the International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 4th – 7th October 2012 Kuala Lumpur Declaration
We, the representatives of Anti-Corruption Authorities of 111 Member States of the United Nations and regions and of 12 International Organizations, gathered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, for the Sixth Annual Conference and General Meeting of the International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities (IAACA) devoted to “Technical Assistance and Information Exchange” (Chapter VI of United Nations Convention Against Corruption – UNCAC):
Recalling United Nations General Assembly Resolution 58/4, by which the Assembly adopted the UNCAC and established International Anti-Corruption Day as the 9th of December each year,
Recalling also all relevant United Nations General Assembly and Economic and Social Council Resolutions calling for the expeditious ratification and full implementation of the UNCAC,
Recalling further our Beijing, Bali, Kiev, Macao and Marrakech Declarations, as well as the recommendations made by the side-event of the Conference of the States Parties to the UNCAC (CoSP) held in Amman and co-organized by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and IAACA,
Aware of the importance of the Resolutions adopted by the CoSP, at its First, Second, Third and Fourth sessions held respectively at Amman, Nusa Dua, Doha and Marrakech,
Convinced that relevant government agencies, civil society and relevant professional organizations can individually and collectively make significant contributions to the effective implementation of the UNCAC,
1. Express our gratitude to the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission, for hosting the Sixth Annual Conference and General Meeting of IAACA, as well as our deepest appreciation to the Government and People of Malaysia for their warm hospitality;
2. Extend our appreciation to the Government of Tanzania and in particular the Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau for hosting the Executive Committee meeting of the IAACA held in Arusha from 30 March to 1 April 2012;
3. Recognize and affirm the importance of affording technical assistance, including material support, training, relevant experience and specialized knowledge to meet the individual needs of States Parties for the effective implementation of the UNCAC, and to become an integral part of the overall effort in fighting corruption;
4. Reiterate the importance of compliance by States Parties with the provisions contained in Chapter VI of UNCAC of affording country-led and country-based, integrated and coordinated technical assistance, especially with regard to technical assistance to meet the needs identified by States Parties through the Implementation Review Mechanism of the UNCAC;
5. Urge States Parties to accord high priority to meeting technical assistance requirements identified and prioritized in their responses to the comprehensive self-assessment checklists and the country reports;
6. Encourage States Parties to initiate, develop or improve specific training programmes on preventing and combating corruption to improve law enforcement skills for competent officials;
7. Urge States Parties to afford one another the widest measure of support, including training, exchange of relevant experience and specialized knowledge to facilitate international cooperation in line with the relevant UNCAC’s provisions;
8. Pledge our full support to help States Parties identify and substantiate specific needs for technical assistance, and to promote and facilitate the provision of such assistance to fill the identified gaps;
9. Strongly encourage UNODC to continue to provide developing countries and countries with economies in transition, upon request and in response to their specific requirements, a wide range of capacity building assistance, as well as direct expertise on policy formulation, through the Office’s thematic and regional programmes, and recommend that multilateral and bilateral providers of technical assistance include the objectives of the UNCAC as an integral part of their annual commitments and increase the amount of resources devoted to supporting developing countries to implement the Convention, in close cooperation with UNODC and IAACA;
10. Call upon the Executive Committee to consider the needs of IAACA members, including proposing, overseeing and evaluating current training-related activities, so as to help equip policy makers and practitioners with the requisite knowledge and skills in the fight against corruption, as set out in the Work Plan;
11. Pledge our full support to the ongoing efforts and recommendations of the Open-ended Intergovernmental Working Group on Asset Recovery, established to advise and assist the CoSP in the implementation of its mandate on the return of proceeds of corruption, in developing cumulative knowledge, encouraging cooperation, facilitating the exchange of information and identifying capacity building needs, and look forward to the implementation of its multi-year work plan relating to asset recovery, covering the period 2012 – 2015;
12. Recognize the continuing and valuable role of the joint UNODC and World Bank StAR (Stolen Asset Recovery) Initiative as a driving force in the asset recovery agenda, and call upon States Parties to continue to actively support the Initiative in its work;
13. Welcome with satisfaction the fact that 161 countries have ratified or acceded to the UNCAC and urge the Governments of those countries that have not yet done so to move swiftly and with conviction to ratify or accede to the Convention, in order to achieve the goal of universal adherence to the Convention;
14. Welcome with appreciation the important decisions of the CoSP in its four sessions held to date, and look forward to further progress in the implementation of its mandate through its Fifth session, to be held in Panama in 2013;
15. Commend UNODC for its exceptional work and commitment in serving as the Secretariat of the CoSP and its subsidiary bodies and in implementing the Resolutions of the CoSP, including its efforts towards the effective delivery of technical assistance;
16. Underline the importance of the role of the CoSP in monitoring the implementation of the Convention and reiterate our call to the Executive Committee of IAACA, in consultation with the Secretariat of the CoSP, to seek appropriate ways to establish closer collaboration between IAACA and the CoSP in order to enhance the involvement and contribution of IAACA and its members in properly and effectively implementing the recommendations made by the CoSP;
17. Look forward to the outcome of the Implementation Review Mechanism of the UNCAC, and call upon the Executive Committee of IAACA to encourage sharing of the experience gained by its members in the review process;
18. Reiterate our call upon all Member States to institute relevant reforms that promote professionalism and effectiveness of anti-corruption authorities in preventing and combating corruption, the independence and integrity of the judiciary, the prevention of conflict of interest in public office, freedom of access to information, and transparency and accountability in public administration, as well as to ensure and preserve the full independence of all relevant anti-corruption authorities; and in this context, welcome with appreciation and commend the achievements of the network European Partners against Corruption (EPAC/EACN) in unanimously adopting Universal Principles and Standards for Anti-Corruption Authorities and encourage all Members States to take favourable note of them and translate them into reality;
19. Urge anti-corruption authorities to proactively promote with their respective Governments and legislative bodies the development and implementation of appropriate programmes of work in order to maintain, sustain and strengthen the momentum generated by the UNCAC, and to devote continued attention to both their vital preventive role and crucial law enforcement functions, as applicable, which are fundamental for the practical and effective application of all the relevant provisions of the UNCAC and for enhanced international cooperation;
20. Urge Member States as well as relevant international organizations and financial institutions, on the basis of the principle of shared responsibility and collective global action, to consider providing additional resources to support such efforts, including by contributing to the UNODC special account a percentage of the money or of the corresponding value of proceeds of crime or property confiscated in accordance with the provisions of UNCAC, in line with Article 62 (c) of the Convention;
21. Express our deepest appreciation to all relevant international and professional associations, Intergovernmental and Nongovenmental organizations, civil society and the media for raising public awareness of UNCAC and the destructive effect of corruption in its many and varied forms, by extending their continuing support and cooperation to IAACA and to the CoSP, and underscore the importance of protection of witnesses, experts, victims, prosecutors, judges and those other persons engaged in the fight against corruption;
22. Express also our appreciation to the Executive Committee for implementing the initiatives agreed upon in the Work Plan, which resulted in the identification of new avenues for enhanced international cooperation in the fight against corruption, generating also a number of new and innovative ideas in our anti-corruption awareness campaigns and networking platform, and request the Executive Committee to devote sufficient resources to ensure that the Work Plan is implemented in an effective, structured and sustained manner;
23. Welcome with appreciation and commend the launch by the International Anti-Corruption Academy (IACA) of the first international and inter-disciplinary Master programme in Anti-Corruption Studies, designed for working professionals of all sectors of society who wish to remain fully employed while pursuing their degree and designed to further empower them in their important anti-corruption work, invite all Member States to send participants and consider taking over scholarships for participants from LDCs; and encourage enhanced cooperation between IAACA, IACA, all member countries, the Malaysian Anticorruption Academy (MACA) and other regional and national training institutions, by sharing knowledge, expertise and best practices as well as by developing curricula for joint training activities, and by doing so taking into account the results of the review mechanism of the UNCAC;
24. Extend our appreciation and commend the efforts of the Independent Commission Against Corruption, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China for hosting the International Anti-Corruption Public Service Announcement Video Competition and Workshop in Hong Kong in December 2011, attracting 29 contesting entries from anti-graft bodies and law enforcement agencies of 21 countries and places, also acknowledging with great gratitude the support or pledges of other countries like Brazil and India in carrying out some other joint activities included in the Work Plan;
25. Welcome with great satisfaction the important contributions and joint initiatives of IAACA Members already generated by the Work Plan, and strongly encourage other Members to become fully involved in its further implementation, by contributing suggestions or undertaking initiatives, whether individually or jointly with other Members and in close collaboration with the IAACA Secretariat, with a view to supporting IAACA in realizing the ultimate goal of the Association in promoting the effective implementation of the UNCAC;
26. Extend our appreciation to the People’s Republic of China for hosting, and commend the efforts of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate for the successful conduct of the training seminar organized by IAACA in Dalian in June 2012, which was attended by 420 participants from 81 countries, as well as for its continuous support for organizing and hosting such training seminars, and encourage other IAACA Members to hold similar training events not only regionally or subregionally but also at the national level;
27. Appreciate the stewardship and direction shown by the founding and incumbent Presidents of the Association in continuously fostering cooperation and partnership among anti-corruption authorities and with relevant international, regional and national organizations and institutions in furtherance of the anti-corruption cause, and commend the Secretariat for providing energetic and highly professional support to the work of the Association; and
28. Decide that the text of this Declaration be widely circulated by the relevant anti-corruption authorities in their respective countries and that it should be submitted to the CoSP, in addition to the United Nations General Assembly and other relevant bodies of the United Nations.
KUALA LUMPUR, 4 Oktober 2012- Perdana Menteri, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak hari ini menyatakan kerajaan komited dalam usaha memerangi gejala rasuah dan ianya terus kekal menjadi keutamaan kerajaan dengan meletakkannya sebagai satu Bidang Keberhasilan Utama Negara (NKRA) dalam Program Transformasi Kerajaan (GTP) dan Program Transformasi Ekonomi (ETP).
Katanya, pelbagai pendekatan yang diambil dalam membanteras gejala rasuah menunjukkan keseriusan kerajaan, termasuk transformasi aspek rangka kerja sehingga penubuhan Suruhanjaya Pencegahan Rasuah Malaysia (SPRM).
“Kita selalu mendengar apabila orang bercakap mengenai rasuah, perkara pertama yang berada dalam fikiran adalah penyalahgunaan kuasa dalam kalangan penjawat kerajaan dan ahli-ahli politik dan kita perlu berhenti melihat perbuatan itu hanya kepada penjawat awam dan ahli-ahli politik.
“Tanggapan sedemikian sebenarnya cukup dangkal kerana pada hakikatnya gejala rasuah boleh dilakukan oleh sesiapa sahaja,” katanya ketika berucap pada majlis perasmian Persidangan Pertubuhan Agensi Penguat Kuasa Anti Rasuah Antarabangsa (IAACA) Keenam di Pusat Konvensyen Kuala Lumpur di sini.
Majlis disertai lebih 1,000 pegawai pencegah rasuah dari 120 negara itu turut dihadiri Peguam Negara, Tan Sri Abdul Gani Patail, Ketua Pesuruhjaya SPRM, Datuk Seri Abu Kassim Mohamed dan Presiden IAACA, Prof. Cao Jianming.
Pada majlis itu, Najib turut menyerahkan sumbangan kerajaan sebanyak RM1 juta untuk menjayakan Akademi Anti Rasuah Antarabangsa kepada Pengerusi IAACA, Martin Kreutner.
Perdana Menteri, semua pihak patut melihat usaha memerangi rasuah dalam perspektif lebih luas kerana terdapat masyarakat berjaya mengurangkan aktiviti itu dengan bergantung kepada kesedaran sivik yang tinggi.
“Kesedaran ini boleh dilaksanakan dengan tumpuan khusus dalam etika, norma-norma dan nilai masyarakat yang berbeza.
“Kesedaran itu cukup kritikal kepada individu yang berada dalam kekuasaan jawatan dan kewibawaan untuk mencontohi nilai-nilai yang perlu diikuti oleh kumpulan yang berada di bawahnya,”katanya.
“Nilai kesedaran yang betul dan kepimpinan etika asal itu sebenarnya bermula dari rumah,” tegas beliau
KL Conference a Vital Platform to Strengthen International Cooperation & Improve Technical Assistance, says IAACA President
KUALA LUMPUR – The International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities (IAACA) President Professor Cao Jianming praised Malaysia for successfully hosting the 6th IAACA Annual Conference and General Meeting from 4 to 7 October 2012.
” On behalf of IAACA, I wish to extend warm congratulations to the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC) for its remarkable work in organizing this conference, and sincere thanks to the MACC Chief Commissioner Dato’ Sri Abu Kassim Mohamed and all his colleagues at the MACC for the thoughtful arrangements, gracious hospitality and hard work,” he said during the Closing Ceremony of the 6th IAACA Conference on 7 October.
This conference is an important conference for anti-corruption authorities of all countries and regions to strengthen information exchange, enhance mutual understanding and promote technical assistance, and is also a great event in the field of international cooperation in anti-corruption.
In the past four days, prosecutors-general, attorneys general, ministers of supervision, heads of anti-corruption authorities, representatives of international anti-corruption organizations, and experts and scholars from all over the world had extensive and in-depth discussions on issues related to information exchange and technical assistance, a subject of common interest.
Professor Cao pointed out that the ‘IAACA Kuala Lumpur Declaration’ which was published demonstrated the firm determination of all participants to further strengthen the international cooperation and improve the technical assistance.
He added that IAACA participants had also urged States Parties to set up mutual legal assistance schemes to afford one another the widest measure of technical assistance; to initiate, develop or improve specific training programmes on preventing and fighting corruption to improve law enforcement skills for officials; and to continue to provide developing countries a wide range of capacity building assistance; and to increase the amount of resources needed to support developing countries to implement UNCAC, and etc.
He stated that the IAACA Secretariat will submit the Declaration to the Conference of States Parties to UNCAC and relevant United Nations agencies. The Declaration will also be promoted in all member states.
Professor Cao noted that broad consensus was reached on strengthening information exchange and promoting technical assistance.
During the four days, participants made keynote speeches and presentations at the opening ceremony and seminar, introducing the anti-corruption work in their respective countries and regions.
Through the exchange of views on some important issues, broad consensus was reach on strengthening dialogue and communication among the anti-corruption authorities of all countries and regions.
Secondly, IAACA delegates agreed to make the best use of the platform and channel provided by IAACA, take an active part in the annual meetings, seminars and anti-corruption awareness activities held by IAACA, and improve the working mechanisms for training, discussion and skill development to promote exchanges and cooperation.
Thirdly, IAACA members will actively implement the measures of technical assistance, strengthen information exchange and technical assistance, work hard to provide multifaceted assistance to developing countries, including financial contribution, material support and skills training, so as to improve these countries’ ability to fight and prevent corruption crimes, and achieve a balanced development of international anti-corruption work.
Fourthly, IAACA participants will strengthen judicial assistance and law enforcement cooperation, earnestly implement the working mechanisms on international cooperation, joint law enforcement and asset recovery under UNCAC, carry out closer international criminal justice cooperation, including mutual assistance in investigation and evidence collection in cases that concern both sides, stolen asset recovery, extradition and joint investigation, learn the experience from each other and jointly fight and prevent corruption crimes. [ENDS]
IAACA President & Prosecutor-General of Supreme People’s Procuratorate of the People’s Republic of China
The Following text were the speech of IAACA President, Prof. Cao Jianming during the Opening Ceremony of the 6th IAACA Annual Conference and General Meeting, Kuala Lumpur;
Your Excellency Mr. Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib bin Tun Abd Razak, Prime Minister of Malaysia,
Respected Mr. Dato’ Sri Abu Kassim bin Mohamed, Chief Commissioner of Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
It is my great pleasure to join all of you in attending the Sixth IAACA Annual Conference and General Meeting held in the beautiful city of Kuala Lumpur. The Malaysian Government has attached great importance to this conference and Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak has taken time out of his busy schedule to attend and address this meeting. Here, on behalf of IAACA (International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities), I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak for his presence and to the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission for organizing this conference!
It is gratifying to see that, since the last annual conference and thanks to vigorous efforts of IAACA, exchanges and cooperation between anti-corruption authorities in all countries and regions have been deepened, and new progress has been made in promoting the implementation of the UNCAC (United Nations Convention against Corruption) and the in-depth development of international anti-corruption cooperation. In the past year, IAACA was highly productive in its work, especially in hosting the following major activities:
Firstly, the Fifth IAACA Annual Conference and General Meeting were held in Marrakech, Morocco in October 2011. Nearly 400 participants from 85 countries and regions attended the conference, including prosecutors-general, attorneys general, ministers of supervision, heads of anti-corruption authorities and representatives of 9 international organizations. The conference made an in-depth discussion on the prevention and investigation for transfer of proceeds of offences, the mechanism of direct asset recovery, the international cooperation in asset recovery, forfeiture of assets, asset disposal and asset return, as well as closer bilateral and multilateral cooperation in asset recovery, issued the IAACA Marrakech Declaration, which was well received by the international community after IAACA Secretariat submitted it to the Conference of States Parties to UNCAC and relevant UN agencies and promoted it among all member countries. The conference also adopted the IAACA Work Plan which laid a good foundation for the sustainable development of IAACA.
Secondly, IAACA and ICAC (the Independent Commission against Corruption) HongKong jointly held the First International Anti-Corruption Public Service Announcement Video Competition and Seminar in Hong Kong in December 2011. Over 200 participants from 33 countries and regions took part in the seminar, and 29 anti-corruption videos were presented in the competition. It has actively promoted exchanges and experience-sharing among anti-corruption authorities of all countries and regions and improved the use of media for anti-corruption awareness campaign.
Thirdly, the spring meeting of IAACA Executive Committee was held in Arusha, Tanzania in March 2012. It was attended by representatives from 20 countries and regions, including executive members, observers and representatives of relevant international organizations. The meeting reviewed and evaluated the IAACA Working Report last year and put forward constructive suggestions for the work and activities this year. Discussions were held on the review mechanism for implementation of UNCAC, and adopted the Proposal on Promotion of IAACA International Anti-Corruption Public Service Announcement Videos , the Proposal on the Sixth IAACA Annual Conference and General Meeting and the Proposal on Holding IAACA Seminar in Dalian, China.
Fourthly, the Fourth IAACA Seminar was held in Dalian, China in June 2012. A total of over 400 judicial officials, experts and scholars from over 80 countries and regions took part in the seminar. They gave comprehensive reports on the anti-corruption legislation and work in their respective countries and regions, the international cooperation on asset recovery and the difficulties and problems involved. They had in-depth discussions and shared experience on how to effectively prevent, monitor and investigate transfer of assets across jurisdictions, freezing, forfeiture, seizure, recovery and return of assets. The seminar has improved the work capacity of anti-corruption authorities of all countries and regions and the international anti-corruption cooperation.
These achievements would have been impossible without active participation of all members, especially the executive members. Here, on behalf of IAACA, I wish to express sincere thanks to all executive members and members, especially Mr. Abdesselam Aboudrar, Chairman of the Central Authority for Corruption Prevention of the Kingdom of Morocco, Mr. Timothy Tong, former Commissioner of ICAC HongKong, Dr. Edward G.Hoseah, Director General of PCCB (The Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau) of the United Republic of Tanzania, People’s Procuratorate of Liaoning Province and Dalian of P.R.China for their great support.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Anti-corruption is a common task facing every country in the world, and strengthening exchanges and cooperation in anti-corruption has become an inevitable choice of the international community. Given differences in the level of economic development, political and legal system, historical and cultural background, as well as in legislation, investigation, prosecution and punitive measures for fighting and preventing corruption crimes, countries and regions may be different in their anti-corruption work development. Nonetheless, we should, in the spirit of mutual respect, mutual benefit and win-win cooperation, deepen our cooperation and mutual support to jointly fight and prevent transnational corruption crimes. This conference takes “Technical Assistance and Information Exchange” as the theme and focuses on discussions on “The Need for Intelligence-Led Policing in the Investigation and Prevention of Corrupt Practices”, “Denial of Safe Havens: Core Elements & Strategies”, “Income & Asset Declarations”,”Capacity Building: The Importance of Technical Assistance”, “Proactive Investigation: Staying Ahead”,”Performance Accountability & Integrity in Government Administuative and Business Practices”,”International Recovery of III-Gotten Assets: Case Histories”,”The Role of Prosecutors and Judiciary in Combating Corruption”, which is of important practical significance.I wish to put forward the following points for our discussion:
First, strengthen dialogue and information exchange, and share experience and achievements in anti-corruption. The anti-corruption, procuratorate and judicial authorities of all countries and regions should, in the form of high-level visits, regular seminars, personnel training and academic exchange, strengthen their dialogue and information exchange to enhance mutual understanding and mutual trust. We should make full use of the IAACA platform and actively participate in the IAACA annual conferences, general meetings and seminars, so as to exchange experience in fighting and preventing corruption and promote international cooperation in anti-corruption.
Second, implement the measures of technical assistance to promote balanced development of anti-corruption work. We should earnestly implement the provisions on technical assistance under the Convention, strengthen technical assistance for developing countries, provide them with extensive assistance, including financial contribution, material support and training, and assist developing countries in improving anti-corruption legislation and working mechanism to improve their capability to fight and prevent corruption crimes.
Third, strengthen international cooperation and enhance the level of fighting and preventing corruption crimes. We should take full advantage of the regional or international conferences, seminar mechanisms, and bilateral or multilateral treaties or arrangements, to strengthen information exchange and technical assistance, actively carry out anti-corruption cooperation and training activities, and train all kinds of anti-corruption personnel; and IAACA should, on the basis of the Work Plan, conduct closer cooperation with those anti-corruption authorities with rich experiences and strong work capabilities, as well as relevant international organizations, organize more trainings and seminars with more specialized knowledge, more diversified forms and richer contents, to provide better service and support for member states.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Creating an international community of harmony, stability and integrity requires common efforts of all countries and regions. We should, on the basis of mutual respect, adopt a more proactive and open attitude towards cooperation and explore more pragmatic and effective modes for cooperation, so as to promote the development of anti-corruption technical assistance and information exchange. I sincerely hope that all participants can take the opportunity of this conference to enhance mutual understanding, expand common ground in exchanges and develop friendship in cooperation. Together, we will make great contribution to the sound development of the international anti-corruption cause.
Oleh DATUK AHMAD KHUSAIRI YAHAYA
PENULIS ialah Pengarah Bahagian Dasar, Perancangan dan Penyelidikan SPRM
KESERIUSAN kerajaan dalam meningkatkan integriti dan mengekang jenayah rasuah di kalangan pegawai awam jelas menerusi pelaksanaan pelbagai dasar dan program yang diperkenalkan sejak sedekad lalu.
Antaranya menjadikan rasuah sebagai salah satu daripada bidang penting yang ditekankan dalam Pelan Transformasi Kerajaan (GTP). Untuk itu, sebanyak 27 inisiatif telah dan sedang dilaksanakan dengan giatnya menerusi Bidang Keberhasilan Utama Negara atau NKRA Berkaitan Rasuah.
Apa yang menjadi faktor paling kritikal dalam memastikan usaha meningkatkan tahap integriti perkhidmatan awam, sebenarnya bukanlah terletak pada hanya kesungguhan kerajaan. Kesungguhan itu juga perlu datang dari kepimpinan agensi kerajaan dan menuntut semua lapisan warganya untuk berubah.
Sejak kebelakangan ini, terdapat perubahan yang boleh dibanggakan ditunjukkan oleh kalangan anggota perkhidmatan awam berbanding sedekad lalu. Hakikatnya, tahap kesedaran para pegawai awam terhadap integriti dan semangat anti-rasuah jelas meningkat. Namun demikian, masih banyak ruang boleh diperbaiki untuk menjadikannya unggul di kaca mata masyarakat.
Berdasarkan perangkaan SPRM sepanjang sembilan tahun iaitu 2003 hingga 2011, secara keseluruhannya, purata tangkapan ke atas penjawat awam adalah seramai 260 orang setahun. Berbanding jumlah keseluruhan penjawat awam di Malaysia iaitu 1.4 juta orang, peratusannya adalah terlalu kecil iaitu sekitar 0.018 peratus sahaja.
Walaupun kelihatan kecil namun jika tidak dibendung ia mampu meruntuhkan negara. Pegawai awam dilihat mempunyai kuasa dan kuasa ini jika disalahgunakan boleh mengakibatkan kesan yang amat buruk.
Trend perubahan ke arah pembudayaan integriti dan anti-rasuah di kalangan pegawai awam jelas ketara bermula 2009. Terdapat pengurangan yang jelas dari segi jumlah tangkapan ke atas penjawat awam berbanding tangkapan ke atas sektor swasta dan orang awam. Kempen Perangi Pemberi Rasuah benar-benar menghasilkan impak yang besar dalam sejarah pencegahan rasuah di negara ini. Sejak pelancarannya pada 2009, jumlah penjawat awam dan swasta yang ditangkap kerana cuba menyogok pegawai awam melonjak begitu tinggi. Dalam 2009 misalnya, jumlah tangkapan keseluruhan SPRM ialah seramai 500 orang kerana ditangkap cuba memberi rasuah seramai 98 orang. Melonjak melebihi empat kali ganda iaitu seramai 424 orang dalam 2010 dan 389 orang dalam 2011. Jumlah wang sogokan bermula dari RM50 ke angka RM1 juta.
Perubahan BPR kepada SPRM dalam 2009 sebenarnya membawa kepada perubahan dari segi pendekatan dan strategi pencegahan rasuah di negara ini. SPRM menetapkan tiga bidang utama iaitu penguatkuasaan, perolehan (sebut harga dan tender awam) dan projek mega kerajaan sebagai fokus utamanya.
Beberapa kelemahan yang selama ini menghalang usaha pencegahan rasuah dikenal pasti, antaranya tanggapan bahawa tanggungjawab memerangi rasuah terletak di tangan SPRM semata-mata, kurangnya inisiatif agensi awam untuk mencegah rasuah; mekanisme kawalan dalaman yang longgar dan tidak sempurna dan kesalahan rasuah tidak dianggap sebagai kesalahan berat bagi kes tatatertib.
Terdapat segelintir ketua yang menganggap tugas mencegah rasuah adalah tanggungjawab SPRM. Justeru, pembudayaan integriti dan pencegahan rasuah bukan merupakan agenda utama. Yang lebih penting menjaga suasana harmoni dan semangat esprit de corp di kalangan pegawai/staf. Jika tindakan keras diambil dan pembudayaan anti-rasuah menjadi berkesan maka ia kononnya akan mewujudkan suasana kurang selesa dan syak wasangka sesama anggota.
Perkara yang lebih disesalkan ialah sikap kasihan kepada pesalah rasuah masih menjadi asas pertimbangan dalam proses tindakan tatatertib. Bagi SPRM, siasatan sesuatu kes tidak hanya berakhir dengan tindakan menghadapkan suspek ke mahkamah semata-mata. Sebaliknya, banyak kes yang disiasat SPRM dikemukakan sebagai Laporan SPRM untuk tindakan tatatertib. Namun, atas dasar simpati, suspek-suspek ini terlepas daripada hukuman berat seperti ditamatkan perkhidmatan dan hanya diberikan surat teguran atau amaran sahaja.
Perangkaan SPRM sepanjang 10 tahun lalu berhubung kes tatatertib jelas menunjukkan sebanyak 1,957 laporan dikemukakan kepada Pihak Berkuasa Tatatertib Agensi. Daripada jumlah itu, hanya 60 kes dikenakan hukuman buang kerja. Sebaliknya, 979 atau 50% dikenakan surat amaran yang tidak mendatangkan apa-apa kesan deterrent. Ini jelas menunjukkan tiada istilah serius dalam kes-kes yang melibatkan perbuatan jenayah rasuah.
Cabaran utama yang perlu diperbaiki dalam memastikan kelangsungan program pemantapan integriti dan pencegahan rasuah dalam perkhidmatan awam adalah melibatkan dua pendekatan strategik yang dikenal pasti SPRM iaitu memperkasakan entiti kawalan dalaman agensi awam dan memperkukuhkan SPRM.
Justeru, dalam konteks memperkasakan entiti kawalan dalaman agensi awam, SPRM telah mencadangkan kepada kerajaan untuk mewujudkan model pencegahan rasuah yang berbentuk kawalan dalaman menerusi penubuhan Unit Integriti di kementerian, jabatan Persekutuan dan negeri.
Model unit ini sama seperti di Amerika Syarikat (AS) dan Taiwan. Di AS ia lebih dikenali sebagai Inspector General Office (IGO). Unit ini diwujudkan di jabatan-jabatan berisiko tinggi dan bertanggungjawab sepenuhnya memantau dan menjalankan siasatan ke atas kes-kes berkaitan integriti, rasuah dan lain-lain jenayah yang melibatkan warga agensi terbabit.
Mengambil contoh di AS, unit integriti New York Police Department (NYPD) ditubuhkan dengan keanggotaan seramai 700 orang bagi memantau 35,000 pegawai polis di NYPD iaitu nisbah 1:50 manakala Pihak Berkuasa Pelabuhan New York mempunyai keanggotaan 70 orang bagi memantau 7,000 pekerjanya iaitu nisbah 1:100.
Idea berhubung penubuhan Unit Integriti di agensi-agensi kerajaan ini disambut baik. Buat masa ini, empat agensi telah mewujudkan unit ini iaitu Jabatan Imigresen Malaysia, Jabatan Kastam dan Eksais Diraja, Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan dan SPRM sendiri. Pegawai-pegawai SPRM akan dilantik dan ditempatkan sebagai Ketua Unit Integriti di agensi-agensi terbabit.
Perubahan status daripada BPR ke SPRM dalam 2009 sebenarnya selari dengan perubahan besar kepada budaya kerja dan sistem operasi SPRM secara keseluruhannya. Bermula dengan Pelan Strategik SPRM 2011-2013, tiga bidang utama diperkukuhkan termasuk memperkenalkan sistem pengurusan siasatan berkesan, sistem pengurusan pencegahan dan pendidikan berkesan dan pembangunan serta pemantapan modal insan SPRM secara menyeluruh.
Jawatankuasa Eksekutif Transformasi yang terdiri daripada ahli-ahli Lembaga Penasihat SPRM dibentuk bagi memacu proses transformasi. Kesan kepada proses transformasi ini jelas memantapkan SPRM dari segi memperbaiki struktur organisasi, memperkenalkan sistem pengurusan modal insan berdasarkan kompetensi, memperkenalkan sistem pengurusan bakat yang fleksibel dan membawa masuk tenaga pakar yang berkepakaran tinggi bagi meningkatkan operasi SPRM.
Hari ini saya bersama ahli-ahli Jawatankuasa Khas Mengenai Rasuah mengadap Seri Paduka Baginda Yang Dipertuan Agong di Istana Negara untuk menerima surat cara perlantikan dari Baginda Tuanku. Jawatankuasa ini terdiri daripada ahli-ahli parlimen dari BN dan PR. Ini adalah penggal kedua untuk saya. Rakan-rakan lain di dalam jawatankuasa tersebut ialah YB Dato Seri Radzi Ahmad (BN-Kangar), YB Dr Tan Seng Giaw (DAP-Kepong), YB Datuk Ismail Mutallib (BN-Maran), YB Salahuddin Ayub (PAS-Kubang Kerian), YB Datuk Doris Sophia Brodi (BN Senator/ Timbalan Yang DiPertua Dewan Negara) dan YB Yusmadi Yusoff (PKR- Balik Pulau).
Saya sebenarnya agak risau dengan cadangan ini kerana walaupun nampak ianya baik kerana tidak perlu kebenaran Peguam Negara, namun ianya melanggar prinsip pengasingan fungsi menyiasat dan menuduh seperti dalam sistem kehakiman kita di mana polis menyiasat, Peguam Negara menuduh dan hakim mengadili.
Walaupun sebenarnya ramai ahli-ahli politik dan individu-individu telah ditangkap, didakwa dan dihukum, tanggapan “ikan bilis ditangkap, ikan jerung terlepas” masih menjadi cabaran hebat kepada SPRM. Tidak ramai yang memahami bahawa SPRM tidak boleh bertindak tanpa bukti yang kukuh sebelum membuat pendakwaan. Hanya mengesyaki seseorang terlibat di dalam rasuah (samada realiti atau tidak) tidak dapat membantu SPRM mendapatkan penghukuman oleh mahkamah. SPRM memerlukan bukti yang tidak dapat disangkal oleh peguam bela untuk mendapatkan keputusan bersalah dari mahkamah. Jika SPRM gagal mendapatkan penghukuman bersalah mahkamah, SPRM juga akan dipersalahkan kerana akan ada tuduhan liar yang mengatakan SPRM sengaja melepaskan batuk di tangga dalam usaha membanteras rasuah di dalam negara kita.
Sebagai rujukan, badan pencegah rasuah yang paling terkenal di dunia seperti ICAC Hong Kong juga memerlukan sekitar 10 tahun sebelum berjaya membuktikan kejayaan dan keberkesanan operasi mereka. Saya rasa kita tidak perlu ambil masa sampai begitu lama untuk menjadikan SPRM sebagai sebuah agensi anti rasuah yang berkesan. Rakyat hanya perlu memberi sokongan moral kepada SPRM sekarang.
Sememangnya, perjuangan kita membanteras rasuah mesti dan wajib diteruskan. Insyaallah.
KUALA LUMPUR – As the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC) heightens efforts to combat graft, politicians from all divides must have faith and confidence in the Commission to accomplish the task entrusted to them.
Former Independent Commission Against Corruption of Hong Kong (ICAC) Commissioner Bertrand de Speville stressed that the Commission should be allowed to get on with the job of implementing national anti-corruption strategies without having to encounter any political interference.
Cautioning politicians against “second guessing” the MACC, de Speville remarked that presenting the MACC 2011 Annual Report to parliamentarians is a step towards more accountability and transparency. However, he said that this should not serve as an opportunity for politicians to start “second guessing” the anti-corruption body in its investigations into any particular cases, although they can question the report.
“When they start to second guess the Commission, they begin to undermine the independence and investigations autonomy of the of the anti-corruption body. And they will serve the country ill by doing that,” he warned.
Since stepping down in 1996 as the Commissioner of ICAC Hong Kong, de Speville has advised governments and international organizations on various aspects of anti-corruption policy and practice. From year 1997-2003, he was the adviser to the Council of Europe’s Multidisciplinary Group on Corruption.
A lawyer by profession, he practiced in the private and public sectors in London and Hong Kong and was Solicitor General of Hong Kong before being asked to turn his attention to corruption and good governance. This is his fifth visit to Malaysia.
Praising the MACC for being accountable to representatives of the public, de Speville noted that it is essential for the Commission to have friends in the local communities. He pointed out that the Anti-Corruption Advisory Board members serve as ambassadors to the public as they are first hand witnesses to the initiatives taken by the Commission.
“The Anti-Corruption Advisory Board is invaluable not only as a source of advice to the Commission but it also serves as check and balance. The board monitors the Commission on behalf of the community and board members can better gauge the Commission’s performance,” he said on 28 June 2012, during a visit to the MACC.
This, he said, helps to develop and sustain public support in what MACC is doing since public support is essential for the success against corruption.
“If you do not have public support, you cannot win the fight,” he added, besides stressing the need to equip the national anti-corruption body with sufficient funds and resources.
“It is not enough to have fine plans and great works. You have to back it with resources,” he said. [ENDS]
KUALA LUMPUR – Suruhanjaya Pencegahan Rasuah Malaysia (SPRM) telah menyerahkan Laporan Tahunan SPRM 2011 kepada Jawatankuasa Khas Mengenai Rasuah (JKMR) di Parlimen hari ini.
Penyerahan ini selaras dengan Seksyen 14 Akta Suruhanajaya Pencegahan Rasuah Malaysia (ASPRM) 2009 di mana Jawatankuasa Khas perlu memeriksa laporan tahunan Suruhanjaya dan ulasan Lembaga Penasihat Pencegahan Rasuah.
Sepertimana yang termaktub dalam Akta SPRM 2009, Jawatankuasa ini hendaklah menyediakan dan mengemukakan laporan mengenai penunaian fungsinya kepada Perdana Menteri yang hendaklah membentangkan satu salinan laporan itu di Parlimen.
Hadir menerima Laporan Tahunan 2011 SPRM adalah Pengerusi JKMR Dato’ Seri Mohd Radzi Sheikh Ahmad Dr Tan Seng Giaw, Dato Hj. Abdul Rahman Dahlan, Dato’ Hj. Ismail bin Hj. Abd Mutalib, dan Yusmadi Yusof